Occidental College (1966-1970), B.A. in Psychology.
University of California, San Diego (1971-1973), M.A. in Experimental Psychology.
Univ. of Minnesota (1973-1976), Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology.
University of Texas at Austin (1976-1982), Assistant Professor of Psychology; (1982-1984), Associate Professor.
University of California at Berkeley (1984-1989), Associate Professor of Optometry; (1989- present), Professor of Optometry; (1985-present), Adjunct Professor of Psychology, Neuroscience and Bioengineering.
University of California at Berkeley, Chairman of the Vision Science Program (1995-2002 and 2012).